|Date of birth||Stuttgart, Stuttgart Government Region, Baden-Württemberg, Germany|
|Date of death||Jan 13, 1885 Zehdenick, Oberhavel, Brandenburg, Germany|
|Awards||Pour le Mérite, Order of the Black Eagle, Order of St. Andrew, Order of St. George, 3rd class|
Prince Friedrich August Eberhard of Württemberg (full German name: Friedrich August Eberhard, Prinz von Württemberg; 24 January 1813, Stuttgart, Kingdom of Württemberg – 12 January 1885, Ban de Teuffer, Zehdenick, Province of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia) was a royal Prussian Colonel General of the Cavalry with the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and Kommandierender General of the Guards Corps for more than 20 years. August was a member of the House of Württemberg and a Prince of Württemberg by birth.
August was the fifth and youngest child of Prince Paul of Württemberg, brother of William I of Württemberg, and his wife Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
After 16 years of military service to the Kingdom of Württemberg in 1831, August was promoted to Rittmeister in the First Cavalry Regiment. In April 1831, August was granted permission by his uncle William I of Württemberg to serve in the Prussian Army.
In the Prussian Army, August was assigned initially to the Regiment Gardes du Corps and a year later he was promoted to Major. In 1836, August was further promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and in 1838 to Colonel. August served as a Commando for four years in the Guards Cuirassiers. In 1844, as Major General, August assumed the leadership of the 1st Guards Cavalry Brigade and as early as 1850 he was promoted to Lieutenant General. With a brief interruption of two years from 1854 to 1856, he commanded the 7th Division in Magdeburg, but remained loyal to the cavalry. In September 1857, August served as Commanding General of III Corps, but changed as early as 3 June 1858 to the Commanding General for the Guards Corps. This position he held for 20 years.
In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, August belonged to the Army of Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia and commanded as a Cavalry General the Guard Corps in the victorious battles of Soor and Burkersdorf. The Battle of Königgrätz on 3 July 1866 witnessed the decisive occupation of Chlum (now part of Všestary, known for its cemetery) by his units. However, a significant share of the Army's victories was under August's very able chief of staff, Lieutenant Colonel von Dannenberg. After the campaign, William I of Prussia awarded August the Order of Pour le Mérite, and appointed him chief of Posenschen Ulanen-Regiments Number 10 in Züllichau that bore its name until its dissolution in 1919. In the Franco-Prussian War, the Guard Corps participated in the Battle of Gravelotte on 18 August 1870. The attack on the broad plain was made hastily and without supporting artillery fire. Even the subsequent envelopment of the enemy by the Royal Saxon Army troops could not therefore be exploited. The Guard Corps, under the leadership of August, were assigned to Albert, Crown Prince of Saxony, and even participated in the Battle of Sedan, and in part in the Siege of Paris. Even in this campaign, the chief of staff Ferdinand von Dannenberg was appointed General.
After the war ended, August von Württemberg Commander of the Guard Corps was received by the Prussian king and awarded the Oak Leaves of the Pour le Mérite, and both classes of the Iron Cross. On 2 September 1873, he was appointed Colonel General of the Cavalry with the rank of Field Marshal. In the place of Field Marshal Friedrich Graf von Wrangel, August was transferred in June 1878 to the Oberkommando der Marken and remained in this position for another four years. On 24 August 1882, he asked for his discharge from active duty, which was granted to him by making him a Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle.
Death and legacy
During a hunting trip in Zehdenick near Berlin, August died on 12 January 1885. His funeral was held four days later at Berlin's Garnisonkirche. He was transferred to Ludwigsburg Palace where he was interred at the palace chapel. Fort August von Württemberg, one of the inner belt of fortifications of the Fortifications of Metz, was named in his honor.
Württembergian Chamber of Lords
As a prince of the Royal House of Württemberg since 1830, August was one of the lords in the Württembergische Landstände, but never took part in their meetings. He was represented by other members of the chamber, the last one being Andreas Renner.
Marriage and issue
August married morganatically to Marie Bethge on 14 November 1868. August and Marie had one daughter:
- Catharina Wilhelmine Helene Charlotte Auguste Hedwig von Wardenberg (Berlin 18 April 1865 – Potsdam 25 September 1938)
- ∞ Berlin 2 October 1884, Dedo von Schenck (Mansfeld Castle 11 February 1853 – Wiesbaden 28 April 1918)
- Albrecht von Schenck (20 September 1885 – 10 June 1888)
- Eberhard von Schenck (born 15 Nov 1887)
- Freda von Schenck (21 March 1890 – 2 March 1946)
- Dedo von Schenck (23 July 1892 – 15 August 1892)
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 24 January 1813 – 12 January 1885: His Royal Highness Prince August of Württemberg
Awards and decorations
- Pour le Mérite with Oak Leaves (c.1871)
- Iron Cross of 1870, 1st and 2nd class (c. 1871)
- Order of the Black Eagle with Diamonds (1882)
- Wolfgang Hausen: Königlich Preußischer Generaloberst der Kavallerie mit dem Range eines Generalfeldmarschalls Prinz August von Württemberg. In: Deutsches Soldatenjahrbuch 1985; Schild Verlag, München 1985; ISBN 3-88014-082-0.