Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Josepha; 7 September 1683 – 14 August 1754) was an Archduchess of Austria and Queen consort of Portugal. She was also Regent of Portugal from 1742 until 1750 during the illness of her husband King John V of Portugal.
The Arrival of Maria Anna of Austria in Lisbon; Gottfried Stein, c. 1708.
Born Maria Anna Josepha, she was a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. Maria Anna was a sister of Holy Roman Emperors Joseph I and Charles VI. Through her brother Charles, she was an aunt of Maria Theresa, Austria's first queen regnant.
Queen Consort of Portugal
On 27 October 1708 Maria Anna of Austria married John V, King of Portugal. She would cease to be the Queen Consort of Portugal on 31 July 1750, when her husband died. During her time as Queen Consort of Portugal, she acted as regent during times of her husband's illness.
Once she was head of her household, Maria Anna reformed her court and its customs to follow the traditions and costumes of the traditional Queens of Portugal. Her greatest influence on the court, and Portuguese nobility as a whole, was the increase of segregation between men and women, as well as between servants and masters. Like John, Maria Anna had an exubrant taste, and this was best shown in her famous parties. Often lasting several days, she would invite the nobility from all over the country and hold a magnificent festival, often in concurrence with a saintly holiday, though religion played a small part in her parties.
In 1742 Maria Anna took over power as regent after her husband suffered a stroke, which left him partially paralyzed. When John V died on 31 July 1750 she gave up power to their eldest son Joseph I of Portugal.
She died while in residence in the Palace of Belém in 1754. After her death, she was buried in Lisbon, but her heart was brought to Vienna and buried there in the imperial crypt.
Marriage and children
On 27 October 1708 she married her maternal first cousin John V of Portugal to become Queen consort of Portugal. She was the mother of six children:
Barbara of Portugal (4 December 1711 – 27 August 1758), married Ferdinand VI of Spain, no issue.
Pedro of Portugal (19 October 1712 – 24 October 1714), Prince of Brazil, died in infancy.
Joseph I of Portugal (6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777), married Mariana Victoria of Spain.
Infante Carlos of Portugal (2 May 1716 – 30 March 1720), died in infancy.
Peter III of Portugal (5 July 1717 – 25 May 1786) married Maria I, Queen regnant of Portugal, had issue.
Infante Alexandre of Portugal (24 September 1723 – 2 August 1728), died in infancy.
Maria Anna, along with her husband and children, is a central character in José Saramago's novel Baltasar and Blimunda (1987).
Ancestors of Maria Anna of Austria
16. Charles II of Austria (=22)
8. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
17. Maria Anna of Bavaria (=23)
4. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
18. William V, Duke of Bavaria (=26)
9. Maria Anna of Bavaria
19. Renata of Lorraine (=27)
2. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
20. Philip II of Spain
10. Philip III of Spain
21. Anna of Austria
5. Maria Anna of Spain
22. Charles II of Austria (=16)
11. Margaret of Austria
23. Maria Anna of Bavaria (=17)
1. Maria Anna of Austria
24. Philip Louis, Count Palatine of Neuburg
12. Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg
25. Anna of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
6. Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
26. William V, Duke of Bavaria (=18)
13. Magdalene of Bavaria
27. Renata of Lorraine (=19)
3. Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
28. Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
14. George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
29. Magdalene of Brandenburg
7. Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
30. John George I, Elector of Saxony
15. Sophia Eleonore of Saxony
31. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
7 September 1683 – 27 October 1708Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria
27 October 1708 – 31 July 1750Her Most Faithful Majesty the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
31 July 1750 – 14 August 1754Her Most Faithful Majesty the Queen Mother of Portugal and the Algarves