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Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt

German entomologist
The basics
Occupation Salon-holder Entomologist
AKA Karoline Luise Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach, Caroline Luise, Markgräfin von Baden, Margravine of Baden-Durlach Karoline Luise, Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach Caroline Luise, Margravine of Baden-Durlach Caroline Louise
Date of birth Darmstadt, Darmstadt Government Region, Hesse, Germany
Date of death Apr 08, 1783 Paris, Île-de-France, France
Mother: Countess Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Father: Louis VIII Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Spouse: Charles Frederick Grand Duke of Baden
Brother(s): Louis IX Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt
Children: Charles Louis Hereditary Prince of Baden Louis I Grand Duke of Baden
Authority Library of congress id VIAF id
The details

Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt (11 July 1723 – 8 April 1783), was a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist, collector and salonist.


The daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt and Charlotte Christine Magdalene Johanna of Hanau, she married on January 28, 1751 to Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden.

She is described as learned, spoke five languages, corresponded with Voltaire and made Karlsruhe to a cultural centre in Germany where she counted Johann Gottfried von Herder, Johann Caspar Lavater, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Christoph Willibald Gluck and Christoph Martin Wieland among her guests. She was a member of Markgräflich Baden court orchestra and the Danish Academy of Fine Arts, draw, painted in water colours and had a laboratory set up in the Karlsruhe palace. Carl von Linné named Glückskastanie Carolinea Princeps L. after her, and Friedrich Wilhelm von Leysser was hired to gather plants for her. She supported herself and managed a soap- and candle-factory. Her health was ruined by a fall in 1779, and she died by a stroke during a trip with her son.

Her collections were the foundation of the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe and the State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe.


Caroline Louise with her sons Charles Louis and Frederick.
Painting by Joseph Melling, 1757.
  • Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden (February 14, 1755 – December 16, 1801). Charles Louis's son, Charles Louis Frederick, succeeded Charles Frederick as Grand Duke upon the latter's death in 1811.
  • Frederick (August 29, 1756 – May 28, 1817) married on December 9, 1791 Louise of Nassau-Usingen (August 16, 1776 – February 19, 1829), the daughter of Duke Frederick of Nassau-Usingen
  • Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden (February 9, 1763 – March 30, 1830) married Countess Katharina Werner von Langenstein in 1818. Louis succeeded his nephew Charles Louis Frederick as 3rd Grand Duke in 1818.
  • Son (July 29, 1764 – July 29, 1764)
  • Louise Auguste (January 8, 1767 – January 11, 1767)

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 11 July 1723 – 28 January 1751 Her Serene Highness Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
  • 28 January 1751 – 21 October 1771 Her Serene Highness The Margravine of Baden-Durlach
  • 21 October 1771 – 8 April 1783 Her Serene Highness The Margravine of Baden


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