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George H. W. Bush

George H. W. Bush

American politician, 41st president of the united states
The basics
About
Occupation Politician Military personnel Baseball player Diplomat Aircraft pilot Entrepreneur Autobiographer Statesperson
Country United States of America
AKA George H.W Bush, G. H. Bush, Daddy Bush, George Bush Sr., GHW Bush, George Bush, George H.W., G.H.W. Bush, George the Older, GHWB, Poppy Bush, George H.W.Bush, George H. W, Bush I, Papa Bush, George H W, George Herbert Bush, George H. W., H W Bush, George Bush Snr., George H. Bush, Vice President Bush, H. W. Bush, G. H. W. Bush, Herbert Walker Bush, George H Bush, Bush Sr., G H W Bush, President Bush, George Herbert Walker Bush, Senior Bush, President George H. W. Bush, George H W Bush, George Bush Sr, H.W. Bush, Bush Snr., President George H.W. Bush, Bush Senior, George Bush Senior, Bush 41, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush Senior, George Bush, Sr., George HW Bush, 41st President of the United States, GeorgeHWBush
Date of birth Milton, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Date of death Nov 30, 2018 Kennebunkport, York County, Maine, U.S.A.
Residence Houston, Harris County, Texas, U.S.A.
Family
Father: Prescott Bush
Spouse: Barbara Bush
Sister(s): Nancy Walker Bush Ellis
Brother(s): Jonathan Bush William H. T. Bush
Mother: Dorothy Walker Bush
Children: Dorothy Bush Koch
Awards Distinguished Flying Cross, Honorary citizen of Berlin, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Eric-M.-Warburg-Award, Order of the White Lion, Air Medal, Philadelphia Liberty Medal, Freedom Award, Robert Schuman Medal, Profile in Courage Award, Ronald Reagan Freedom Award, Jubilee Medal "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Presidential Medal of Freedom, Doublespeak Award, Theodore Roosevelt Award, World Golf Hall of Fame, Honorary doctor at the Nanjing University, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Ellis Island Medal of Honor, honorary doctorate of Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, honorary doctor of the Ohio State University, Doublespeak Award, Honorary citizen of Kraków
Education Greenwich Country Day School, Phillips Academy, Yale University
Political party Republican Party
Authority VIAF id Rotten Tomatoes id Britannica id All Movie id BIBSYS id IMDB id NNDB id Wikitree id Library of congress id ISNI id Discogs id Find a grave id Openlibrary id Musicbrainz id
The details
Biography

George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Prior to assuming the presidency, Bush served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been a Congressman, Ambassador and Director of Central Intelligence. During his career in public service, he was known simply as George Bush; since 2001, he has often been referred to as "George H. W. Bush", "Bush 41", or "George Bush Senior" in order to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush, the 43rd president of the United States.

A scion of the Bush family, he was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Bush postponed his university studies, enlisted in the U.S. Navy on his 18th birthday, and became the youngest aviator in the U.S. Navy at the time. He served until September 1945, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas, where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. Soon after founding his own oil company, Bush became involved in politics. He was defeated in his first election, for the U.S. Senate in 1964 but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas' 7th district in 1966. He was re-elected in 1968 and was defeated for election to the Senate again in 1970. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, and in 1973, Bush became the Chairman of the Republican National Committee. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed Bush as the ambassador to China and later reassigned Bush to the position of Director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980 but was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan. Reagan chose Bush as his running mate, and Bush became vice president after the Reagan–Bush ticket won the 1980 election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed administration task forces on deregulation and fighting the War on Drugs.

In 1988, Bush ran a successful campaign to succeed Reagan as President, defeating Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency: military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf; the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Although the agreement was not ratified until after he left office, Bush also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and, after a struggle with Congress, signed an increase in taxes that Congress had passed. In the wake of a weak recovery from an economic recession, along with continuing budget deficits and the diminution of foreign politics as a major issue in a post-Cold War political climate, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton.

Bush left office in 1993. His presidential library was dedicated in 1997, and he had been active—often alongside Bill Clinton—in various humanitarian activities. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son combination to serve as president, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Bush's second son, Jeb Bush, served as the 43rd Governor of Florida and sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2016.

Bush died on November 30, 2018, at the age of 94. At the time of his death, Bush was the longest-lived American president in history, followed closely by Jimmy Carter, who was born a few months later.

Early life and education

George H. W. Bush, c. 1925

George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts, on June 12, 1924, to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, Connecticut, shortly after his birth. Growing up, he used the nickname "Poppy".

Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School in Greenwich. Beginning in 1938, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, where he held a number of leadership positions that included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of both the varsity baseball and soccer teams.

World War II

Crewmen of the submarine USS Finback rescue Bush

The United States formally entered World War II in December 1941, following Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Six months later, Bush enlisted into the U.S. Navy immediately after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his eighteenth birthday. He became a naval aviator, taking training for aircraft carrier operations aboard USS Sable. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the United States Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943 (just three days before his 19th birthday), which made him the youngest naval aviator to that date.

In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 (VT-51) as the photographic officer. The following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious in one of the largest air battles of World War II: the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

Bush in his TBM aboard San Jacinto in 1944

After Bush's promotion to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. Bush piloted one of four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima. His crew for the mission, which occurred on September 2, 1944, included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lt.(jg) William White. During their attack, the Avengers encountered intense anti-a fire; Bush's aircraft was hit by flak and his engine caught fire. Despite the fire in his aircraft, Bush completed his attack and released bombs over his target, scoring several damaging hits. With his engine ablaze, Bush flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member of the TBM bailed out; the other man's parachute did not open. Bush waited for four hours in an inflated raft, while several fighters circled protectively overhead, until he was rescued by the submarine USS Finback, on lifeguard duty. For the next month, he remained in Finback and participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors. This experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"

In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. Through 1944, he flew 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to San Jacinto. Bush was then reassigned to a training wing for torpedo bomber crews at Norfolk Navy Base, Virginia. His final assignment was to a new torpedo squadron, VT-153, based at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan. Bush was honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy in September 1945, one month after the surrender of Japan.

Marriage and college years

When Bush was still in the Navy, he married Barbara Pierce (1925–2018) in Rye, New York on January 6, 1945. The marriage produced six children: George W. (b. 1946), Robin (1949–1953), Jeb (b. 1953), Neil (b. 1955), Marvin (b. 1956), and Doro (b. 1959). At the time of his wife's death on April 17, 2018, George H. W. had been married to Barbara for 73 years; theirs was the longest presidential marriage in American history. They had become the longest-married presidential couple in January 1999 when their marriage surpassed the 54-year (1764–1818) marriage of John and Abigail Adams.

After Bush received his military discharge, he enrolled at Yale University. He earned an undergraduate degree in economics on an accelerated program that enabled him to graduate in two and a half years, rather than the usual four. He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected its president. He also captained the Yale baseball team and played in the first two College World Series as a left-handed first baseman. Bush was the team captain during his senior year in 1948, and he met Babe Ruth before a game; the event took place only weeks before Ruth's death. Like his father, he was also a member of the Yale cheerleading squad. Late in his junior year, he was initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society; his father Prescott Bush had been initiated into the same society in 1917. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa when he graduated from Yale in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics.

Business career

After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. His father's business connections proved useful as he ventured into the oil business, starting as an oil field equipment salesman for Dresser Industries, a subsidiary of Brown Brothers Harriman (where Prescott Bush had served on the board of directors for 22 years). While working for Dresser, Bush lived in various places with his family: Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas. (According to eldest son George W. Bush, then age two, the family lived in one of the few duplexes in Odessa with an indoor bathroom, which they "shared with a couple of hookers".) Bush started the Bush-Overbey Oil Development company in 1951 and in 1953 co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company that drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas. In 1954 he was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling.

In 1959 (shortly after the subsidiary became independent), Bush moved the company and his family from Midland to Houston. He continued serving as president of the company until 1964, and later chairman until 1966, when he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives. By that time, Bush had become a millionaire.

Early political career (1963–1980)

Congressional years (1967–1971)

Bush in 1969

Bush's career in politics began in 1963 when he was elected chairman of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party. The following year, he ran against incumbent Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in the U.S. Senate race. He presented himself as a young Conservative Republican in contrast to the aging liberal Democrat Yarborough. He campaigned against civil rights legislation pending before Congress, stating that he believed it gave too much power to the federal government. Bush lost the election 56% to 44%, though he did outpoll Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater, who lost by an overwhelming margin to Lyndon B. Johnson.

Bush and the Harris County Republicans played a role in the development of the new Republican Party of the late 20th century. First, Bush worked to absorb the John Birch Society members, who were trying to take over the Republican Party. Second, during and after the civil rights movement, Democrats in the South who were committed to segregation left their party, and although the "country club Republicans" had differing ideological beliefs, they found common ground in hoping to expel the Democrats from power.

Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower with Bush

In 1966, Bush was elected to a seat in the United States House of Representatives from the 7th District of Texas; he won 57 percent of the ballots cast in a race against Democrat Frank Briscoe, who was the district attorney of Harris County. Bush was the first Republican to represent Houston in the U.S. House. Bush's representative district included Tanglewood, the Houston neighborhood that was his residence; his family had moved into Tanglewood in the 1960s. His voting record in the House was generally conservative: Bush voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district. He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported. Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful House Ways and Means Committee, where he voted to abolish the military draft. He was elected to a second term in 1968.

In 1970, Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat in order to run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, who was a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert J. Morris by a margin of 87.6% to 12.4%. Nixon came to Longview, Texas to campaign for Bush and gubernatorial candidate Paul Eggers, a Dallas lawyer who was a close friend of U.S. Senator John G. Tower. Former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission in south Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary. Yarborough endorsed Bentsen, who defeated Bush, 53.4 to 46.6%.

Ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1973)

Bush as ambassador to the United Nations, 1971

Following his 1970 loss, Bush was well known as a prominent Republican businessman from the "Sun Belt", a group of states in the Southern part of the country. Nixon noticed and appreciated the sacrifice Bush had made of his Congressional position, so he appointed him Ambassador to the United Nations. He was confirmed unanimously by the Senate, and served for two years, beginning in 1971.

Chairman of the Republican National Committee (1973–74)

Amidst the Watergate scandal, Nixon asked Bush to become chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. Bush accepted, and held this position when the popularity of both Nixon and the Republican Party plummeted. He defended Nixon steadfastly, but later as Nixon's complicity became clear, Bush focused more on defending the Republican Party, while still maintaining loyalty to Nixon. As chairman, Bush formally requested that Nixon eventually resign for the good of the Republican party. Nixon did this on August 9, 1974; Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died.... The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon—a kick or two at the press—enormous strains. One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame.... [President Gerald Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift."

Envoy to China (1974–75)

Bush as U.S. Liaison to China, circa 1975

President Gerald Ford appointed Bush to be Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China. Since the United States at the time maintained official relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and not the People's Republic of China, the Liaison Office did not have the official status of an embassy and Bush did not formally hold the position of "ambassador", though he unofficially acted as one. The 14 months that he spent in China were largely seen as beneficial for U.S.-China relations.

After Ford assumed the presidency, Bush was under serious consideration for being nominated as vice president. Ford eventually narrowed his list to Nelson Rockefeller and Bush. White House Chief of Staff Donald Rumsfeld reportedly preferred Rockefeller over Bush. Rockefeller was finally named and confirmed.

Bush was again passed over for the vice presidency by Ford when the president chose Bush's future presidential rival, Senator Bob Dole, to replace Rockefeller on the 1976 presidential ticket.

Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)

Bush, as CIA Director, listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut of Francis E. Meloy Jr. and Robert O. Waring, 1976.

In 1976 Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), replacing William Colby. He served in this role for 357 days, from January 30, 1976, to January 20, 1977. The CIA had been rocked by a series of revelations, including those based on investigations by the Church Committee regarding illegal and unauthorized activities by the CIA, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency's morale. In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as president-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration, but did not do so. He was succeeded by Deputy Director of Central Intelligence E. Henry Knoche, who served as acting Director of Central Intelligence until Stansfield Turner was confirmed.

Other positions (1977–1981)

After Democrat Jimmy Carter took power in 1977, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston. He later spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University's Jones School of Business beginning in 1978, the year it opened; Bush said of his time there, "I loved my brief time in the world of academia." Between 1977 and 1979, he was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy organization.

Congressional years (1967–1971)

Bush in 1969

Bush's career in politics began in 1963 when he was elected chairman of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party. The following year, he ran against incumbent Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in the U.S. Senate race. He presented himself as a young Conservative Republican in contrast to the aging liberal Democrat Yarborough. He campaigned against civil rights legislation pending before Congress, stating that he believed it gave too much power to the federal government. Bush lost the election 56% to 44%, though he did outpoll Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater, who lost by an overwhelming margin to Lyndon B. Johnson.

Bush and the Harris County Republicans played a role in the development of the new Republican Party of the late 20th century. First, Bush worked to absorb the John Birch Society members, who were trying to take over the Republican Party. Second, during and after the civil rights movement, Democrats in the South who were committed to segregation left their party, and although the "country club Republicans" had differing ideological beliefs, they found common ground in hoping to expel the Democrats from power.

Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower with Bush

In 1966, Bush was elected to a seat in the United States House of Representatives from the 7th District of Texas; he won 57 percent of the ballots cast in a race against Democrat Frank Briscoe, who was the district attorney of Harris County. Bush was the first Republican to represent Houston in the U.S. House. Bush's representative district included Tanglewood, the Houston neighborhood that was his residence; his family had moved into Tanglewood in the 1960s. His voting record in the House was generally conservative: Bush voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district. He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported. Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful House Ways and Means Committee, where he voted to abolish the military draft. He was elected to a second term in 1968.

In 1970, Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat in order to run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, who was a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert J. Morris by a margin of 87.6% to 12.4%. Nixon came to Longview, Texas to campaign for Bush and gubernatorial candidate Paul Eggers, a Dallas lawyer who was a close friend of U.S. Senator John G. Tower. Former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission in south Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary. Yarborough endorsed Bentsen, who defeated Bush, 53.4 to 46.6%.

Vice presidency (1981–1989)

First term, 1981–1985

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a typically low profile while he recognized the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. As had become customary, he and his wife moved into the Vice President's residence at Number One Observatory Circle, about two miles from the White House. After selling the house in Tanglewood, the Bushes declared a room in The Houstonian Hotel in Houston as their official voting address. The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, "George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan." As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.

Vice President Bush official portrait (1981)

On March 30, 1981 (early into the administration), Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C. Bush was in Fort Worth, Texas, and immediately flew back to Washington because he was next in line to the presidency. Reagan's cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the Nuclear Football. When Bush's plane landed, he was advised by his aides to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack. Bush rejected the idea, responding, "Only the President lands on the South Lawn." This made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.

At a Republican fundraiser in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in June 1981, Bush stated that President Reagan was unwilling to make additional tax cut compromises with Congress.

In September 1981, Bush traveled to Mexico to participate in Independence Day celebrations there. He said in a statement that President Reagan was "deeply committed to strengthening the friendship and cooperation between our countries".

In November 1981, Bush toured western Texas to offer support for beleaguered Director of the Office of Management and Budget David Stockman, who he believed was intelligent but needed to adjust to managing journalists.

During a December 1981 interview, Bush stated that he was convinced news leaks by unnamed administration officials were correct and had succeeded in hurting President Reagan: "I really feel we have been undisciplined in this White House. We've not served the president well by these leaks."

On April 28, 1982, Bush met with Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew for a wide-ranging discussion that included speaking about regional security, the world economy, and Soviet expansionism in Southeast Asia, and later that month, Bush confirmed he was considering traveling to China during his impending trip to Asia and the Pacific amid a news conference in Seoul, South Korea.

President Ronald Reagan with Bush

In November 1982, Bush toured Africa, the first instance of American government visiting there since the Reagan administration began. Bush told reporters that while he would allow for heads of state to dictate how each meeting would transpire, there was an expectation on his part for discussions on the independence of Namibia, adding that the US was going to retain the position of no settlement in Namibia until Cuban troops in Angola were withdrawn. On November 15, Bush met with United States Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Yuri Andropov in Moscow, Russia, to discuss human rights and arms reductions. Bush later said, "The meeting was frank, cordial and substantive. It gave both sides the opportunity to exchange views on the state of their relations."

At the end of January 1983, Bush began a seven-day tour of West Europe intended to promote the arms reduction commitment being advocated for by the Reagan administration. During a February 8 news conference in Paris, Bush said the US's invitations for the Soviet Union to consent to a reduction in medium-range missiles were supported by Western Europe, which he stated had also consented to the deployment of new American missiles starting in the latter part of the year. The following day, Bush defended American nuclear arms policy when answering British Secretary General of the Committee on Nuclear Disarmament Bruce Kent.

In September 1983, Bush met with President of Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu, insisting during the meeting that President Reagan intended to push for arms reductions at the Geneva talks with the Soviet Union. Shortly thereafter, Bush said the US wanted better relations with all countries within the East Bloc though stressed NATO would retaliate in the event of any threatening of European military stability by the Soviets, and the vice president assailed the Soviet Union for the Berlin Wall and destroying the Korean Air Lines jetliner.

In December 1983 Bush flew to El Salvador and warned that country's military leaders to end their death squads and hold fully free elections or face the loss of U.S. aid. "It is not just the President, it is not just me or the Congress. If these death-squad murders continue, you will lose the support of the American people and that would indeed be a tragedy." Bush's aides feared for his safety and thought about calling the meeting off when they discovered apparent blood stains on the floor of the presidential palace of Álvaro Magaña. Bush was never told of the aides' concerns and a tense meeting was held in which some of Magaña's personnel brandished semiautomatic weapons and refused requests to take them outside.

Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, on deregulation and international drug smuggling. The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. The drug smuggling task force coordinated federal efforts to reduce the quantity of drugs entering the United States. Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work.

In January 1984, Bush reported Reagan's stance on Moscow had projected a strong image toward the Soviets as well as heightened the possibility of an arms agreement.

On February 10, 1984, President Reagan designated Bush to lead the American delegation to the funeral of Yuri V. Andropov and convey America's "hope for an improved dialogue and cooperation which can lead to a more constructive relationship between our two countries." On February 24, Bush spoke on the progress made in Grenada as a result of the Reagan administration coming into play following Vietnam, Watergate, and the presidency of Jimmy Carter while talking to the American Soybean Association: "When the president faced this crisis in Grenada he didn't wait until we were taken hostage, he acted before the crisis became a humiliation."

On June 14, 1984, Bush cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate in favor of 10-warhead MX missile.

In September 1984, Bush said President Reagan likely would state his responsibility for the failure to protect the Beirut American embassy from bombing but stressed the difficulty of pressure.

Second term, 1985–1989

Reagan and Bush ran for reelection in 1984. The Democratic opponent, Walter Mondale, made history by choosing a woman, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro, as his running mate. She and Bush squared off in a single televised vice presidential debate. Ferraro served as a contrast to the Ivy-League educated Bush; she represented a "blue-collar" district in Queens, New York. This distinction and her popularity among female journalists left Bush at a disadvantage. Regardless, the Reagan-Bush ticket won in a landslide against the Mondale-Ferraro ticket. Early into his second term as vice president, Bush and his aides were planning a run for the presidency in 1988. By the end of 1985, a committee had been established and over two million dollars was raised for Bush.

In mid-March 1985, Bush attended the funeral of Konstantin Chernenko, telling reporters in Geneva, Switzerland, that he had "brought a message with me to Moscow from President Reagan. It is a message of peace." During this trip, Bush pledged the US would proceed with a planned military pullout from Grenada during a rally, met with President of Nicaragua Daniel Ortega for discussions on the four-point plan for peace of the Sandinista government in Brazil, and stated America would be committed in combatting the Sandinista regime within Nicaragua during an address in Honduras.

On July 13, 1985, Bush became the first vice president to serve as acting president when Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon; Bush served as the acting president for approximately eight hours.

In October 1985, Bush toured Pearl Harbor while he received a briefing on Pacific Fleet operations. He told reporters of an improvement in Sino-American relations and disclosed Taiwan as a major topic in his discussions with Chinese officials.

In 1986, the Reagan administration was shaken by a scandal when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran. The officials had used the proceeds to fund the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua, which was a direct violation of law. The scandal became known as the Iran-Contra Affair. When news of the public embarrassment broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds, although this was later questioned. His diaries from that time stated "I'm one of the few people that know fully the details" and as a result of six pardons by Bush, the independent counsel's final report on the Iran-Contra Affair pointedly noted: "The criminal investigation of Bush was regrettably incomplete."

In March 1986, Bush outlined the government's policy on the combating of terrorism. In an interagency task force report presented to President Reagan, Bush publicly stated that the strategy of the federal government was to retaliate without "wantonly" terminating human lives. In early April 1986, Bush was hoping to preserve peace when he traveled to the Persian Gulf.

In May, Bush underwent a procedure to remove a malignant growth from his left cheek. His spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said that doctors had found the growth weeks earlier.

British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Bush, 1986

During an appearance at a conference in January 1987, Bush confirmed the torture and subsequent murder of CIA agent William Francis Buckley by Islamic Jihad.

In February 1987, Bush addressed the National Religious Broadcasters, warning the group that intolerance was unacceptable and particularly called for racial tolerance. "We must let our children know hatred has no place in America. The Ku Klux Klan is an embarrassment to Christ, whose gospel is love, and an embarrassment to our nation, whose gospel is freedom."

In March 1987, Bush announced the resignation of advisor Fred Khedouri as well as implementation of Charles Greenleaf in the same role, and visited a drug rehabilitation center during a two-day swing through Florida, expressing the view that education was the sole means of ending drug issues throughout the US.

In September 1987, Bush embarked on a month long trip to Poland and European allied countries. On September 22, Bush cast a tie breaking vote in the Senate to save the Strategic Defense Initiative from receiving a 800 million cut in funding. On September 25, Bush reemployed Peter Teeley as Director of Communications for his office and presidential campaign. On September 28, Bush delivered a televised address pledging that the US would forever be aligned with Poland.

Bush's campaign director Roger Ailes and others were concerned that Bush was seen as a "wimp." Bush put that image to rest when he displayed evident fury during an interview with Dan Rather.

As vice president, Bush officially opened the 1987 Pan American Games in Indianapolis.

In 1988, the guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes accidentally shot down Iran Air Flight 655, killing 290 passengers. Bush said that he would "never apologize for the United States of America. Ever. I don't care what the facts are."

First term, 1981–1985

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a typically low profile while he recognized the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. As had become customary, he and his wife moved into the Vice President's residence at Number One Observatory Circle, about two miles from the White House. After selling the house in Tanglewood, the Bushes declared a room in The Houstonian Hotel in Houston as their official voting address. The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, "George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan." As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.

Vice President Bush official portrait (1981)

On March 30, 1981 (early into the administration), Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C. Bush was in Fort Worth, Texas, and immediately flew back to Washington because he was next in line to the presidency. Reagan's cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the Nuclear Football. When Bush's plane landed, he was advised by his aides to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack. Bush rejected the idea, responding, "Only the President lands on the South Lawn." This made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.

At a Republican fundraiser in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in June 1981, Bush stated that President Reagan was unwilling to make additional tax cut compromises with Congress.

In September 1981, Bush traveled to Mexico to participate in Independence Day celebrations there. He said in a statement that President Reagan was "deeply committed to strengthening the friendship and cooperation between our countries".

In November 1981, Bush toured western Texas to offer support for beleaguered Director of the Office of Management and Budget David Stockman, who he believed was intelligent but needed to adjust to managing journalists.

During a December 1981 interview, Bush stated that he was convinced news leaks by unnamed administration officials were correct and had succeeded in hurting President Reagan: "I really feel we have been undisciplined in this White House. We've not served the president well by these leaks."

On April 28, 1982, Bush met with Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew for a wide-ranging discussion that included speaking about regional security, the world economy, and Soviet expansionism in Southeast Asia, and later that month, Bush confirmed he was considering traveling to China during his impending trip to Asia and the Pacific amid a news conference in Seoul, South Korea.

President Ronald Reagan with Bush

In November 1982, Bush toured Africa, the first instance of American government visiting there since the Reagan administration began. Bush told reporters that while he would allow for heads of state to dictate how each meeting would transpire, there was an expectation on his part for discussions on the independence of Namibia, adding that the US was going to retain the position of no settlement in Namibia until Cuban troops in Angola were withdrawn. On November 15, Bush met with United States Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Yuri Andropov in Moscow, Russia, to discuss human rights and arms reductions. Bush later said, "The meeting was frank, cordial and substantive. It gave both sides the opportunity to exchange views on the state of their relations."

At the end of January 1983, Bush began a seven-day tour of West Europe intended to promote the arms reduction commitment being advocated for by the Reagan administration. During a February 8 news conference in Paris, Bush said the US's invitations for the Soviet Union to consent to a reduction in medium-range missiles were supported by Western Europe, which he stated had also consented to the deployment of new American missiles starting in the latter part of the year. The following day, Bush defended American nuclear arms policy when answering British Secretary General of the Committee on Nuclear Disarmament Bruce Kent.

In September 1983, Bush met with President of Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu, insisting during the meeting that President Reagan intended to push for arms reductions at the Geneva talks with the Soviet Union. Shortly thereafter, Bush said the US wanted better relations with all countries within the East Bloc though stressed NATO would retaliate in the event of any threatening of European military stability by the Soviets, and the vice president assailed the Soviet Union for the Berlin Wall and destroying the Korean Air Lines jetliner.

In December 1983 Bush flew to El Salvador and warned that country's military leaders to end their death squads and hold fully free elections or face the loss of U.S. aid. "It is not just the President, it is not just me or the Congress. If these death-squad murders continue, you will lose the support of the American people and that would indeed be a tragedy." Bush's aides feared for his safety and thought about calling the meeting off when they discovered apparent blood stains on the floor of the presidential palace of Álvaro Magaña. Bush was never told of the aides' concerns and a tense meeting was held in which some of Magaña's personnel brandished semiautomatic weapons and refused requests to take them outside.

Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, on deregulation and international drug smuggling. The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. The drug smuggling task force coordinated federal efforts to reduce the quantity of drugs entering the United States. Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work.

In January 1984, Bush reported Reagan's stance on Moscow had projected a strong image toward the Soviets as well as heightened the possibility of an arms agreement.

On February 10, 1984, President Reagan designated Bush to lead the American delegation to the funeral of Yuri V. Andropov and convey America's "hope for an improved dialogue and cooperation which can lead to a more constructive relationship between our two countries." On February 24, Bush spoke on the progress made in Grenada as a result of the Reagan administration coming into play following Vietnam, Watergate, and the presidency of Jimmy Carter while talking to the American Soybean Association: "When the president faced this crisis in Grenada he didn't wait until we were taken hostage, he acted before the crisis became a humiliation."

On June 14, 1984, Bush cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate in favor of 10-warhead MX missile.

In September 1984, Bush said President Reagan likely would state his responsibility for the failure to protect the Beirut American embassy from bombing but stressed the difficulty of pressure.

Presidency (1989–1993)

Chief Justice William Rehnquist administers the Presidential Oath of Office to George H. W. Bush during his January 20, 1989 inauguration ceremony at the United States Capitol

Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. He entered office at a period of change in the world; the fall of the Berlin Wall came early in his presidency, the collapse of Soviet Union came in 1991. He ordered military operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf, and, at one point, was recorded as having a record-high approval rating of 89%.

In his Inaugural Address, Bush said:

I come before you and assume the Presidency at a moment rich with promise. We live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. For a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn; for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken.

Domestic policy

Economy

Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with leftover deficits spawned during the Reagan years. At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had tripled since 1980. Bush was dedicated to curbing the deficit, believing that America could not continue to be a leader in the world without doing so. He began an effort to persuade the Democratic controlled Congress to act on the budget; with Republicans believing that the best way was to cut government spending, and Democrats convinced that the only way would be to raise taxes, Bush faced problems when it came to consensus building.

In the wake of a struggle with Congress, Bush was forced by the Democratic majority to raise tax revenues; as a result, many Republicans felt betrayed because Bush had promised "no new taxes" in his 1988 campaign. Perceiving a means of revenge, Republican congressmen defeated Bush's proposal, which would enact spending cuts and tax increases that would reduce the deficit by $500 billion over five years. Scrambling, Bush accepted the Democrats' demands for higher taxes and more spending, which alienated him from Republicans and gave way to a sharp decrease in popularity. Bush would later say that he wished he had never signed the bill. Near the end of the 101st Congress, the president and congressional members reached a compromise on a budget package that increased the marginal tax rate and phased out exemptions for high-income taxpayers. Although he originally demanded a reduction in the capital gains tax, Bush relented on this issue as well. This agreement with the Democratic leadership in Congress proved to be a turning point in the Bush presidency; his popularity among Republicans never fully recovered.

Bush's approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) for his four-year presidency

Coming at around the same time as the budget deal, America entered into a mild recession, lasting for six months. Many government programs, such as welfare, increased. As the unemployment rate edged upward in 1991, Bush signed a bill providing additional benefits for unemployed workers. The year 1991 was marked by many corporate reorganizations, which laid off a substantial number of workers. Many now unemployed were Republicans and independents, who had believed that their jobs were secure.

By his second year in office, Bush was told by his economic advisors to stop dealing with the economy, as they believed that he had done everything necessary to ensure his reelection. By 1992, interest and inflation rates were the lowest in years, but by midyear the unemployment rate reached 7.8%, the highest since 1984. In September 1992, the Census Bureau reported that 14.2% of all Americans lived in poverty. At a press conference in 1990, Bush told reporters that he found foreign policy more enjoyable.

Education

On April 5, 1989, Bush submitted to Congress the Educational Excellence Act of 1989, a seven program education legislative proposal with the intent of achieving "a better-educated America." The proposal was opposed by Republicans seeking to shrink government's role in education and met with a lack of enthusiasm by Democrats. A week after submitting the proposal, Bush said his administration was seeking to provide waivers on "some regulations for poorer communities" and create "a kind of performance-driven partial deregulation of education" that would grant federal funding when schools showed high levels of accountability coupled with academic performance. Later in the year, from September 27–28, Bush held a two-day summit with American governors dedicated solely to education reform at the University of Virginia, the group forming a consensus to overhaul the American education system for the country's students to be closer in test scores in science, mathematics, and literacy.

In the 1990 State of the Union Address, Bush revealed his interest in his administration spearheading the increase in American high school graduation rates to 90% along with making American students "first in the world" in the subjects of math and science by 2000.

In a speech in the White House East Room on April 18, 1991, Bush called for both public and private citizens to become involved with education reform: "To those who want to see real improvement in American education, I say there will be no renaissance without revolution. It's time we held our schools, and ourselves, accountable for results." On June 3, Bush advocated for community participation in reforming the national education system and insisting America 2000 would fail "if we try to do it from Washington itself." On October 4, Bush met with representatives of the New American Schools Development Corp. at Camp David as the organization sought 200 million USD for education reform to aid with the forming of "new learning environments". In a November 25 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, Bush joined Governor of Ohio George Voinovich in formally announcing a state version of his education policy, "Ohio 2000". Bush concurrently declared he would be involved with a reform of troubled schools and charged the Democrat-controlled Congress with "fighting tooth and nail against our most important reforms".

On July 23, 1992, Bush signed the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, a resuming of "many programs in the Higher Education Act of 1965."

Major initiatives

During a speech to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, Bush announced a vision to complete Space Station Freedom, resume exploration of the Moon and begin exploration of Mars. Although a space station was eventually constructed–work on the International Space Station began in 1998–other work has been confounded by NASA budgetary issues. In 1998, Bush received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement's National Space Trophy for his pioneering leadership of the U.S. space program.

During his presidency, Bush signed a number of major bills into law, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; this was one of the most pro-civil rights bills in decades. He was also the only president to successfully veto a civil rights act, having vetoed the job-discrimination protection Civil Rights Act of 1990. Bush feared racial quotas would be imposed, but later approved watered-down Civil Rights Act of 1991. He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. He also signed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act which provides monetary compensation of people who had contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to high levels of radon while doing uranium mining. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. He quarreled with Congress over an eventually signed bill to aid police in capturing criminals, and signed into law a measure to improve the nation's highway system. Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States.

Bush became a life member of the National Rifle Association early in 1988 and had campaigned as a "pro-gun" candidate with the NRA's endorsement. In March 1989, he placed a temporary ban on the import of certain semiautomatic rifles. This action cost him endorsement from the NRA in 1992. Bush publicly resigned his life membership in the organization after receiving a form letter from NRA depicting agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as "jack-booted thugs." He called the NRA letter a "vicious slander on good people."

Points of Light

President Bush devoted attention to voluntary service as a means of solving some of America's most serious social problems. He often used the "thousand points of light" theme to describe the power of citizens to solve community problems. In his 1989 inaugural address, President Bush said, "I have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation, doing good."

Four years later, in his report to the nation on The Points of Light Movement, President Bush said, "Points of Light are the soul of America. They are ordinary people who reach beyond themselves to touch the lives of those in need, bringing hope and opportunity, care and friendship. By giving so generously of themselves, these remarkable individuals show us not only what is best in our heritage but what all of us are called to become."

In 1990, the Points of Light Foundation was created as a nonprofit organization in Washington to promote this spirit of volunteerism. In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation merged with the Hands On Network with the goal of strengthening volunteerism, streamlining costs and services and deepening impact. Points of Light, the organization created through this merger, has approximately 250 affiliates in 22 countries and partnerships with thousands of nonprofits and companies dedicated to volunteer service around the world. In 2012, Points of Light mobilized 4 million volunteers in 30 million hours of service worth $635 million.

On October 16, 2009, President Barack Obama held a Presidential Forum on Service hosted by former President George H. W. Bush and Points of Light at the George Bush Presidential Library Center on the campus of Texas A&M University. The event celebrated the contributions of more than 4,500 Daily Point of Light award winners and honored President Bush's legacy of service and civic engagement.

In 2011, Points of Light paid tribute to President George H. W. Bush and volunteer service at Washington, D.C.'s Kennedy Center. President Bush was joined by Presidents Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to highlight the role volunteer service plays in people's lives.

Daily Point of Light Award

President Bush created the Daily Point of Light Award in 1989 to recognize ordinary Americans from all walks of life taking direct and consequential voluntary action in their communities to solve serious social problems. The President focused great attention on these individuals and organizations, both to honor them for their tremendous work and to call the nation to join them and multiply their efforts. By the end of his administration, President Bush had recognized 1,020 Daily Points of Light representing all 50 states and addressing issues ranging from care for infants and teenagers with AIDS to adult illiteracy and from gang violence to job training for the homeless. The Daily Point of Light continues to be awarded by Points of Light and President Bush continues to sign all of the awards.

On July 15, 2013, President Barack Obama welcomed President Bush to the White House to celebrate the 5,000th Daily Point of Light Award. They bestowed the award on Floyd Hammer and Kathy Hamilton of Union, Iowa, for their work founding Outreach, a nonprofit that delivers free meals to hungry children in 15 countries.

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Bush appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Other courts

In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 42 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 148 judges to the United States district courts. Among these appointments was Vaughn R. Walker, who would later be revealed to be the earliest known gay federal judge. Bush also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 11 nominees for 10 federal appellate judgeships were not processed by the Democratically-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee.

Foreign policy

Panama

Bush speaks on the telephone regarding Operation Just Cause as General Brent Scowcroft and Chief of Staff John H. Sununu look on, 1989

In the 1980s, Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, a once U.S.-supportive leader who was later accused of spying for Fidel Castro and using Panama to traffic drugs into the United States, was one of the most recognizable names in America and was constantly in the press. The struggle to remove him from power began in the Reagan administration, when economic sanctions were imposed on the country; this included prohibiting American companies and government from making payments to Panama and freezing $56 million in Panamanian funds in American banks. Reagan sent more than 2,000 American troops to Panama as well. Unlike Reagan, Bush was able to remove Noriega from power, but his administration's unsuccessful post-invasion planning hindered the needs of Panama during the establishment of the young democratic government.

In May 1989, Panama held democratic elections, in which Guillermo Endara was elected president; the results were then annulled by Noriega's government. In response, Bush sent 2,000 more troops to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in Panamanian territory (in violation of prior treaties). Bush then removed an embassy and ambassador from the country, and dispatched additional troops to Panama to prepare the way for an upcoming invasion. Noriega suppressed an October military coup attempt and massive protests in Panama against him, but after a U.S. serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered 24,000 troops into the country with an objective of removing Noriega from power; "Operation Just Cause" was a large-scale American military operation, and the first in more than 40 years that was not related to the Cold War.

The mission was controversial, but American forces achieved control of the country and Endara assumed the presidency. Noriega surrendered to the United States and was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992. President Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush visited Panama in June 1992, to give support to the first post-invasion Panamanian government.

Soviet Union

Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev in Helsinki summit in 1990

In 1989, just after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Bush met with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in a conference on the Mediterranean island of Malta. The administration had been under intense pressure to meet with the Soviets, but not all initially found the Malta Summit to be a step in the right direction; General Brent Scowcroft, among others, was apprehensive about the meeting, saying that it might be "premature" due to concerns where, according to Condoleezza Rice, "expectations [would be] set that something was going to happen, where the Soviets might grandstand and force [the U.S.] into agreements that would ultimately not be good for the United States." But European leaders, including François Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher, encouraged Bush to meet with Gorbachev, something that he did December 2 and 3, 1989. Although no agreements were signed, the meeting was viewed largely as being an important one; when asked about nuclear war, Gorbachev responded, "I assured the President of the United States that the Soviet Union would never start a hot war against the United States of America. And we would like our relations to develop in such a way that they would open greater possibilities for cooperation.... This is just the beginning. We are just at the very beginning of our road, long road to a long-lasting, peaceful period." The meeting was received as a very important step to the end of the Cold War.

Another summit was held in July 1991, where the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed by Bush and Gorbachev in Moscow. The treaty took nine years in the making and was the first major arms agreement since the signing of the Intermediate Ranged Nuclear Forces Treaty by Reagan and Gorbachev in 1987. The contentions in START would reduce the strategic nuclear weapons of the United States and the USSR by about 35% over seven years, and the Soviet Union's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles would be cut by 50%. Bush described START as "a significant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust". After the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, President Bush and Gorbachev declared a U.S.-Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War.

Gulf War

President Bush visits American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990

On August 2, 1990, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasion and began rallying opposition to Iraq in the US and among European, Asian, and Middle Eastern allies. Secretary of Defense Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Fahd; Fahd requested US military aid in the matter, fearing a possible invasion of his country as well. The request was met initially with Air Force fighter jets. Iraq made attempts to negotiate a deal that would allow the country to take control of half of Kuwait. Bush rejected this proposal and insisted on a complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces. The planning of a ground operation by US-led coalition forces began forming in September 1990, headed by General Norman Schwarzkopf. Bush spoke before a joint session of the U.S. Congress regarding the authorization of air and land attacks, laying out four immediate objectives: "Iraq must withdraw from Kuwait completely, immediately, and without condition. Kuwait's legitimate government must be restored. The security and stability of the Persian Gulf must be assured. And American citizens abroad must be protected." He then outlined a fifth, long-term objective: "Out of these troubled times, our fifth objective – a new world order – can emerge: a new era – freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony.... A world where the rule of law supplants the rule of the jungle. A world in which nations recognize the shared responsibility for freedom and justice. A world where the strong respect the rights of the weak." With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq's violence, Congress authorized the use of military force with a set goal of returning control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government, and protecting America's interests abroad.

Bush meets with Robert Gates, General Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf and Operation Desert Shield, January 15, 1991

Early on the morning of January 17, 1991, allied forces launched the first attack, which included more than 4,000 bombing runs by coalition aircraft. This pace would continue for the next four weeks, until a ground invasion was launched on February 24, 1991. Allied forces penetrated Iraqi lines and pushed toward Kuwait City while on the west side of the country, forces were intercepting the retreating Iraqi army. Bush made the decision to stop the offensive after a mere 100 hours. Critics labeled this decision premature, as hundreds of Iraqi forces were able to escape; Bush responded by saying that he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties. Opponents further charged that Bush should have continued the attack, pushing Hussein's army back to Baghdad, then removing him from power. Bush explained that he did not give the order to overthrow the Iraqi government because it would have "incurred incalculable human and political costs.... We would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in effect, rule Iraq."

Bush's approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive. Additionally, President Bush and Secretary of State Baker felt the coalition victory had increased U.S. prestige abroad and believed there was a window of opportunity to use the political capital generated by the coalition victory to revitalize the Arab-Israeli peace process. The administration immediately returned to Arab-Israeli peacemaking following the end of the Gulf War; this resulted in the Madrid Conference, later in 1991.

Somali Civil War

Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia that was exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992 to aid the situation through humanitarian efforts, though the mission failed. The Bush administration proposed American aid to the region by assisting in creating a secure environment for humanitarian efforts and UN Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the Security Council on December 3, 1992. A lame duck president, Bush launched Operation Restore Hope the following day under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794. Fighting would escalate and continue into the Clinton administration.

Japan

During an April 28, 1989 appearance in the press room of the White House, Bush announced that the U.S. would continue a deal with Japan to produce the FSX advanced fighter jet. He said that promises had been made that American jobs and technology would be safe and the proposal would bolster security for both the U.S. and Japan.

On November 21, 1989, Bush signed a measure that guaranteed reparations to Japanese-Americans who were relocated into internment camps during World War II. Congress authorized US$20,000 (equivalent to $39,485 in 2017) for each survivor.

On March 12, 1990, Bush met for an hour with former Prime Minister of Japan Noboru Takeshita to discuss shared economic issues and "the fact that their solution will require extraordinary efforts on both sides of the Pacific."

On December 6, 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa apologized to the United States for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The following day—which was the fiftieth anniversary of the attack—Bush accepted Japan's apology for the attack that drew the United States into World War II. Bush urged that progress be made in improving relations between the U.S. and Japan.

Israel

On June 18, 1990, White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater confirmed President Bush had sent Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Shamir a letter in which he congratulated the latter on his election and urged him to support the proposed "Shamir initiative for peace", which would involve the participation of Palestinian Arabians in local elections. On June 20, Bush suspended American dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization for the latter's refusal to condemn the Palestinian guerrilla raid of an Israeli beach the previous month.

On August 11, 1992, following a meeting between President Bush and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Bush announced he would seek the approval of Congress to bestow Israel up to $10 billion in loan guarantees to assist the country with its absorbing of Soviet Union immigrants.

NAFTA

Standing: President Carlos Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; Seated: Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, and Michael Wilson at the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992

The Bush administration and the Progressive Conservative Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The agreement would eliminate the majority of tariffs on products that were traded among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This would encourage trade among the countries. The treaty also restricted patents, copyrights, and trademarks, and outlined the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries. President Bush announced the completion of NAFTA during a Rose Garden appearance on August 12, 1992, calling it the "beginning of a new era".

The agreement came under heavy scrutiny amongst mainly Democrats, who charged that NAFTA resulted in a loss of American jobs. NAFTA also contained no provisions for labor rights; according to the Bush administration, the trade agreement would generate economic resources necessary to enable Mexico's government to overcome problems of funding and enforcement of its labor laws. Bush needed a renewal of negotiating authority to move forward with the NAFTA trade talks. Such authority would enable the president to negotiate a trade accord that would be submitted to Congress for a vote, thereby avoiding a situation in which the president would be required to renegotiate with trading partners those parts of an agreement that Congress wished to change. While initial signing was possible during his term, negotiations made slow, but steady, progress. President Clinton would go on to make the passage of NAFTA a priority for his administration, despite its conservative and Republican roots—with the addition of two side agreements—to achieve its passage in 1993.

The treaty has since been defended as well as criticized further. The American economy has grown 54% since the adoption of NAFTA in 1993, with 25 million new jobs created; this was seen by some as evidence of NAFTA being beneficial to the United States. With talk in early 2008 regarding a possible American withdrawal from the treaty, Carlos M. Gutierrez, current United States Secretary of Commerce, writes, "Quitting NAFTA would send economic shock waves throughout the world, and the damage would start here at home." But John J. Sweeney, President of the AFL-CIO, wrote in The Boston Globe that "the U.S. trade deficit with Canada and Mexico ballooned to 12 times its pre-NAFTA size, reaching $111 billion in 2004."

Pardons

In keeping with tradition, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. On December 24, 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former government employees implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal of the late 1980s, most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Bush described Weinberger, who was scheduled to stand trial on January 5, 1993, for criminal charges related to Iran-Contra, as a "true American patriot".

In addition to Weinberger, Bush pardoned Duane R. Clarridge, Clair E. George, Robert C. McFarlane, Elliott Abrams, and Alan G. Fiers Jr., all of whom had been indicted and/or convicted of criminal charges by an Independent Counsel headed by Lawrence Walsh.

Honorary degrees

George H.W. Bush received honorary degrees from several American and International Universities, including:

Year School and location Degree
1981 Howard University, Washington, D.C. Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1981 Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1982 Miami University, Oxford, Ohio Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1983 Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)
1989 Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Doctorate
1990 Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma Doctor of Economics
1990 Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia Doctor of Humanities (HH.D.)
1991 Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1995 College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1999 Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
1999 Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland Doctor of Public Service (D.P.S.)
2009 University of Macau, Macau, China Doctor of Social Sciences
2011 Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
2014 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
2016 National Intelligence University, Bethesda, Maryland Doctor of Strategic Intelligence

Awards and honors

In 1990, Time magazine named him the Man of the Year. In 1991, the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Bush its Lone Sailor award for his naval service and his subsequent government service. In 1993, he was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath by Queen Elizabeth II. In 2009, he received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award.

1992 presidential campaign

In early 1992, Bush announced that he would seek a second term. A coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings made re-election seem likely. As a result, many leading Democrats declined to seek their party's presidential nomination. On the negative side, Bush's popularity was reduced by an economic recession and doubts of whether he properly ended the Gulf War.

Conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan challenged Bush for the Republican nomination. He shocked political pundits by finishing second, with 37% of the vote in the New Hampshire primary. Bush responded by adopting more conservative positions on issues, in an attempt to undermine Buchanan's base. Once he had secured the nomination, Bush faced his Democratic challenger, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton. Clinton attacked Bush as a politician who was not doing enough to assist the working middle-class and being "out of touch" with the common man, a notion reinforced by reporter Andrew Rosenthal's false report that Bush was "astonished" to see a demonstration of a supermarket scanner.

The 1992 presidential electoral votes by state

In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties' perceived fiscal irresponsibility. Perot later bowed out of the race for a short time, then reentered.

Clinton had originally been in the lead, until Perot reentered, tightening the race significantly. As Election Day neared, the polls suggested that the race was a dead-heat, but Clinton pulled out on top, with 370 electoral votes to Bush's 168 votes. Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in U.S. history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls.

Several key factors led to Bush's defeat. The ailing economy that arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush's loss. On Election Day, 7 in 10 voters said that the economy was either "not so good" or "poor". On the eve of the 1992 election, after unemployment reports of 7.8% appeared (the highest since 1984), Economic recession had contributed to a sharp decline in his approval rating – to just 37%.

Conservative Republicans pointed out that Bush's 1990 agreement to raise taxes contradicted his famous "Read my lips: no new taxes" pledge. In doing so, Bush alienated many members of his conservative base, losing their support for his re-election. According to one survey, of the voters who cited Bush's broken "No New Taxes" pledge as "very important", two thirds voted for Bill Clinton. Bush had raised taxes in an attempt to address an increasing budget deficit, which has largely been attributed to the Reagan tax cuts and military spending of the 1980s. The tax revenue increase had not hurt his approval ratings to the extent that it prevented it from reaching 89% during the Gulf War, four months after the tax vote. By February 1991 his approval rating rose to its highest level—89%.

Public image

Bush visits NAS JRB, New Orleans personnel before he receives briefs on the status of Joint Task Force Katrina relief efforts, October 2005

George Bush was widely seen as a "pragmatic caretaker" president who lacked a unified and compelling long-term theme in his efforts. Indeed, Bush's sound bite where he refers to the issue of overarching purpose as "the vision thing" has become a metonym applied to other political figures accused of similar difficulties. "He does not say why he wants to be there", wrote columnist George Will, "so the public does not know why it should care if he gets his way".

His Ivy League and prep school education led to warnings by advisors that his image was too "preppy" in 1980, which resulted in deliberate efforts in his 1988 campaign to shed the image, including meeting voters at factories and shopping malls, abandoning set speeches.

His ability to gain broad international support for the Gulf War and the war's result were seen as both a diplomatic and military triumph, rousing bipartisan approval, though his decision to withdraw without removing Saddam Hussein left mixed feelings, and attention returned to the domestic front and a souring economy. A New York Times article mistakenly depicted Bush as being surprised to see a supermarket barcode reader; the report of his reaction exacerbated the notion that he was "out of touch". Amid the early 1990s recession, his image shifted from "conquering hero" to "politician befuddled by economic matters".

Although Bush became the first elected Republican president since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid (facing a 34% approval rating leading up to the 1992 election), the mood did not last. Despite his defeat, Bush climbed back from election day approval levels to leave office in 1993 with a 56% job approval rating. By December 2008, 60% of Americans gave Bush's presidency a positive rating.

Domestic policy

Economy

Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with leftover deficits spawned during the Reagan years. At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had tripled since 1980. Bush was dedicated to curbing the deficit, believing that America could not continue to be a leader in the world without doing so. He began an effort to persuade the Democratic controlled Congress to act on the budget; with Republicans believing that the best way was to cut government spending, and Democrats convinced that the only way would be to raise taxes, Bush faced problems when it came to consensus building.

In the wake of a struggle with Congress, Bush was forced by the Democratic majority to raise tax revenues; as a result, many Republicans felt betrayed because Bush had promised "no new taxes" in his 1988 campaign. Perceiving a means of revenge, Republican congressmen defeated Bush's proposal, which would enact spending cuts and tax increases that would reduce the deficit by $500 billion over five years. Scrambling, Bush accepted the Democrats' demands for higher taxes and more spending, which alienated him from Republicans and gave way to a sharp decrease in popularity. Bush would later say that he wished he had never signed the bill. Near the end of the 101st Congress, the president and congressional members reached a compromise on a budget package that increased the marginal tax rate and phased out exemptions for high-income taxpayers. Although he originally demanded a reduction in the capital gains tax, Bush relented on this issue as well. This agreement with the Democratic leadership in Congress proved to be a turning point in the Bush presidency; his popularity among Republicans never fully recovered.

Bush's approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) for his four-year presidency

Coming at around the same time as the budget deal, America entered into a mild recession, lasting for six months. Many government programs, such as welfare, increased. As the unemployment rate edged upward in 1991, Bush signed a bill providing additional benefits for unemployed workers. The year 1991 was marked by many corporate reorganizations, which laid off a substantial number of workers. Many now unemployed were Republicans and independents, who had believed that their jobs were secure.

By his second year in office, Bush was told by his economic advisors to stop dealing with the economy, as they believed that he had done everything necessary to ensure his reelection. By 1992, interest and inflation rates were the lowest in years, but by midyear the unemployment rate reached 7.8%, the highest since 1984. In September 1992, the Census Bureau reported that 14.2% of all Americans lived in poverty. At a press conference in 1990, Bush told reporters that he found foreign policy more enjoyable.

Education

On April 5, 1989, Bush submitted to Congress the Educational Excellence Act of 1989, a seven program education legislative proposal with the intent of achieving "a better-educated America." The proposal was opposed by Republicans seeking to shrink government's role in education and met with a lack of enthusiasm by Democrats. A week after submitting the proposal, Bush said his administration was seeking to provide waivers on "some regulations for poorer communities" and create "a kind of performance-driven partial deregulation of education" that would grant federal funding when schools showed high levels of accountability coupled with academic performance. Later in the year, from September 27–28, Bush held a two-day summit with American governors dedicated solely to education reform at the University of Virginia, the group forming a consensus to overhaul the American education system for the country's students to be closer in test scores in science, mathematics, and literacy.

In the 1990 State of the Union Address, Bush revealed his interest in his administration spearheading the increase in American high school graduation rates to 90% along with making American students "first in the world" in the subjects of math and science by 2000.

In a speech in the White House East Room on April 18, 1991, Bush called for both public and private citizens to become involved with education reform: "To those who want to see real improvement in American education, I say there will be no renaissance without revolution. It's time we held our schools, and ourselves, accountable for results." On June 3, Bush advocated for community participation in reforming the national education system and insisting America 2000 would fail "if we try to do it from Washington itself." On October 4, Bush met with representatives of the New American Schools Development Corp. at Camp David as the organization sought 200 million USD for education reform to aid with the forming of "new learning environments". In a November 25 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, Bush joined Governor of Ohio George Voinovich in formally announcing a state version of his education policy, "Ohio 2000". Bush concurrently declared he would be involved with a reform of troubled schools and charged the Democrat-controlled Congress with "fighting tooth and nail against our most important reforms".

On July 23, 1992, Bush signed the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, a resuming of "many programs in the Higher Education Act of 1965."

Major initiatives

During a speech to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, Bush announced a vision to complete Space Station Freedom, resume exploration of the Moon and begin exploration of Mars. Although a space station was eventually constructed–work on the International Space Station began in 1998–other work has been confounded by NASA budgetary issues. In 1998, Bush received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement's National Space Trophy for his pioneering leadership of the U.S. space program.

During his presidency, Bush signed a number of major bills into law, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; this was one of the most pro-civil rights bills in decades. He was also the only president to successfully veto a civil rights act, having vetoed the job-discrimination protection Civil Rights Act of 1990. Bush feared racial quotas would be imposed, but later approved watered-down Civil Rights Act of 1991. He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. He also signed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act which provides monetary compensation of people who had contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to high levels of radon while doing uranium mining. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. He quarreled with Congress over an eventually signed bill to aid police in capturing criminals, and signed into law a measure to improve the nation's highway system. Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990, which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States.

Bush became a life member of the National Rifle Association early in 1988 and had campaigned as a "pro-gun" candidate with the NRA's endorsement. In March 1989, he placed a temporary ban on the import of certain semiautomatic rifles. This action cost him endorsement from the NRA in 1992. Bush publicly resigned his life membership in the organization after receiving a form letter from NRA depicting agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as "jack-booted thugs." He called the NRA letter a "vicious slander on good people."

Clinton presidency

Upon leaving office, Bush retired with his wife, Barbara, and temporarily moved into a friend's house near the Tanglewood community of Houston as they prepared to build a permanent retirement house nearby. Ultimately they built their retirement house in the community of West Oaks, near Tanglewood. They had a presidential office within the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive. Mimi Swartz of National Geographic wrote that "The Bushes are too studiously sedate to live in River Oaks". They spend the summer at Walker's Point in Kennebunkport, Maine.

In 1993, Bush was awarded an honorary knighthood (GCB) by Queen Elizabeth II. He was the third American president to receive the honor, the others being Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan.

In 1993, Bush was targeted in an assassination plot when he visited Kuwait to commemorate the coalition's victory over Iraq in the Gulf War. Kuwaiti authorities arrested 17 people who were allegedly involved in using a car bomb to kill Bush. Through interviews with the suspects and examinations of the bomb's circuitry and wiring, the FBI established that the plot had been directed by the Iraqi Intelligence Service. A Kuwaiti court later convicted all but one of the defendants. Two months later, Clinton retaliated when he ordered the firing of 23 cruise missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service headquarters in Baghdad. The day before the strike, U.S. Ambassador to the UN Madeleine Albright went before the Security Council to present evidence of the Iraqi plot. After the missiles were fired, Vice President Al Gore said the attack "was intended to be a proportionate response at the place where this plot" to assassinate Bush "was hatched and implemented".

In September 1993, Bush and other living former presidents were invited back to the White House for an Arab-Israeli peace accord. They also made the case to Clinton for a repeal of NAFTA.

In April 1994, Bush attended the funeral of Richard Nixon.

In the 1994 gubernatorial elections, his sons George W. and Jeb concurrently ran for Governor of Texas and Governor of Florida. The elder Bush frequently telephoned campaign headquarters for updates on the race. George W. won his race against Ann Richards while Jeb lost to Lawton Chiles. After the results came in, the elder Bush told ABC, "I have very mixed emotions. Proud father, is the way I would sum it all up." Jeb would again run for governor of Florida in 1998 and win at the same time that his brother George W. won re-election in Texas just two years prior to his election as President.

From 1993 to 1999 he served as the chairman of the board of trustees for Eisenhower Fellowships, and from 2007 to 2009 was chairman of the National Constitution Center.

On September 28, 1994, Bush said he was opposed to sending American troops to Haiti, citing his loss of confidence in President of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide while speaking to business and civic leaders in Houston.

In an October 22, 1994 speech in Cancún, Mexico, Bush said history would vindicate him for not attempting to force Saddam Hussein out of power while in office: "The Mideast peace talks that offer hope to the world would never have started if we had done that. The Arabs would never have talked to us."

On July 17, 1995, Bush returned to the White House for the unveiling of his official portrait in an East Room ceremony attended by former members of his administration.

In September 1995, Bush met with President of Vietnam Lê Đức Anh and party secretary Đỗ Mười in Vietnam. On September 2, Bush and his son George W. participated in a parade commemorating World War II in Fredericksburg, Texas, where the elder Bush reasoned the US had become united in the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attack and stressed America would have to stay involved in world affairs to continue its unity.

On July 26, 1996, Bush met with Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole and pledged he would do everything in his power to aid in securing a victory for Dole in the upcoming presidential election. The two met again in October while Dole was preparing for upcoming debates with President Clinton. Bush's experience with debating Clinton prompting Dole to seek out his advice.

In 1997, the Houston Intercontinental Airport was renamed George Bush Intercontinental Airport.

In February 1997, Bush endorsed the chemical weapon banning treaty supported by United States Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, saying the US would need to approve the treaty ahead of the April deadline.

In April 1997, Bush gave a speech at a convocation of a weekend conference analyzing his presidency and joined President Bill Clinton, former President Ford, and Nancy Reagan in signing the "Summit Declaration of Commitment" in advocating for participation by private citizens in solving domestic issues within the United States.

In August 1997, Bush agreed to be interviewed by The New York Times, as long as he would not be portrayed as giving credit to himself over the balanced budget deal that was composed by President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich. During a telephone interview, he stated his belief that history would show that his administration laid the groundwork for the agreement .

President Bush was Honorary Chairman of Points of Light, an international nonprofit dedicated to engaging more people and resources in solving serious social problems through voluntary service.

In January 1999, Bush spoke in the Old Senate chamber as part of a lecture series for Senators in an address warning against the collapse of political decorum and invasions into the privacy of individuals.

In February 1999, Bush was part of the American delegation to the funeral of Hussein of Jordan in Amman.

In April 1999, Bush called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations.

In May 1999, Bush and his wife Barbara honored six senior citizens during the annual Ageless Heroes honors in Chicago, Illinois.

Faith

Bush's Christian faith was shaped by his upbringing in the Episcopal Church, though by the end of his life his apparent religious beliefs have been considered more in line with Evangelical Christian doctrine and practices. Several key moments in Bush's life led to a deepening of his faith in Jesus Christ, including his narrow escape from Japanese forces in 1944 and the tragic death of his three-year-old child, Robin, in 1953. This strong faith would inspire many themes that later would become apparent in his public life, such as his Thousand Points of Light speech, his support for prayer in schools, and his strong support of the pro-life movement.

After his wife's death in April 2018, Bush released a statement through his spokesman, saying in part, "We have faith she is in heaven, and we know life will go on – as she would have it. So cross the Bushes off your worry list."

Sexual misconduct allegations

In October 2017, during the #MeToo movement, actress Heather Lind accused Bush of groping her and telling an inappropriate joke. Several other women subsequently made similar allegations, including Christina Baker Kline and Roslyn Corrigan (who was 16 years old at the time of the alleged incident). Bush apologized for these incidents through his spokesman, Jim McGrath.

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