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Frederick Augustus III of Saxony

Frederick Augustus III of Saxony

king of Saxony
The basics
Date of birth Dresden, Dresden Directorate District, Saxony, Germany
Date of death Feb 18, 1932 Szczodre, Gmina Długołęka, Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Children: Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony Princess Margarete Karola of Saxony Princess Maria Alix of Saxony Princess Anna of Saxony (1903–1976)
Father: George, King of Saxony
Brother(s): Prince Johann Georg of Saxony Prince Maximilian of Saxony Prince Albert of Saxony
Spouse: Archduchess Louise of Austria
Mother: Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal (1843–1884)
Sister(s): Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony Princess Mathilde of Saxony
Awards Pour le Mérite, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa, Order of St. Andrew, Order of the Rue Crown, Military Order of St. Henry, Civil Order of Saxony, Albert Order, Order of the Black Eagle, Iron Cross, Military Order of Max Joseph, Order of the Golden Fleece, Military Order of Maria Theresa, Royal Order of the Seraphim
Authority VIAF id Library of congress id
The details

Frederick Augustus III (German: Friedrich August III.; 25 May 1865 in Dresden – 18 February 1932 in Sibyllenort) was the last King of Saxony (1904–1918) and a member of the House of Wettin.

Born in Dresden, Frederick Augustus was the first son of King George and his wife, Maria Anna of Portugal.

Frederick Augustus served in the Royal Saxon Army before becoming king, and later was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall. Though well-loved by his subjects, he voluntarily abdicated as king on 13 November 1918, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. He died in Sibyllenort (now Szczodre) in Lower Silesia and was buried in Dresden.

Military career

Frederick Augustus entered the Royal Saxon Army in 1877 as a second lieutenant, despite being only twelve years old. Given his royal status, he advanced rapidly through the ranks. He served initially with the Royal Saxon 1. (Leib-) Grenadier Regiment Nr. 100. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1883, captain in 1887, major in 1889 and lieutenant colonel in 1891. By 1891, he was commander of the 1st Battalion of Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108. He was promoted to colonel on 22 September 1892 and took command of the Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108 on the same day. On 20 September 1894, the 29-year-old prince was promoted to Generalmajor and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Brigade Nr. 45 (Saxon higher units usually bore two numbers: one their Saxon Army number and the other their number in the Prussian Army order of battle). On 22 May 1898, he was promoted to Generalleutnant and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Division Nr. 23. He commanded this division until 26 August 1902, when he took command of the XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps. He was promoted to General der Infanterie one month later, on 24 September. He remained in command of the corps until October 1904, when he became king. His military career effectively ended with his accession to the throne, but he was promoted subsequently to Generaloberst and then to Generalfeldmarschall (on 9 September 1912).

Following his father's accession, he was in July 1902 appointed à la suite of the German Marine Infantry by Emperor Wilhelm II during a visit to Kiel.


Frederick Augustus married Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany, in Vienna on 21 November 1891. They were divorced in 1903 by the royal decree of the King after she ran away while pregnant with her last child. Luise's flight from Dresden was due to her father-in-law's threatening to have her interned in Sonnestein Mental Asylum for life. Her brother supported her in her wish to escape Saxony. Emperor Franz-Josef of Austria-Hungary did not recognise the divorce.

They had seven children:

Their two eldest sons, Friedrich August and Friedrich Christian were born in the same year, 1893, but were not twins. Friedrich August was born in January, while Friedrich Christian was born in December.


  • When standing in uniform on a station platform, a lady asked him to move her trunk. He is reported to have replied, "Madam, I am not a porter; I only look like one."
  • When the German Republic was proclaimed in 1918, he was asked by telephone whether he would abdicate willingly. He said: "Oh, well, I suppose I'd better."
  • Upon abdicating, he is supposed to have said "Nu da machd doch eiern Drägg alleene!" (Saxon for "Well then do your sh... by yourselves!"), but there is no documentation of this.
  • When cheered by a crowd in a railroad station several years after his abdication, he stuck his head out of the train's window and shouted "Ihr seid mer ja scheene Demogradn!" (Saxon for "You're a fine lot of republicans, I'll say!").

Decorations and awards

Frederick Augustus was Grand Master of the following Saxon Orders:

  • Order of the Rue Crown
  • Military Order of St. Henry
  • Albert Order
  • Civil Order of Saxony
  • Saxon Service Order, 1st class (25 years service)
  • Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Austria)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph (Bavaria)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa (Austria-Hungary)
  • Pour le Mérite (Prussia)
  • Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd class (Prussia)

Foreign Honours

  • Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1843.


The contents of this page are sourced from a Wikipedia article. The contents are available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
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