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Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

German noble
The basics
Occupation Erudite Politician
Country Germany
Date of birth Ribeauvillé, canton of Ribeauvillé, arrondissement of Ribeauvillé, Haut-Rhin
Date of death Mar 30, 1774 Darmstadt, Darmstadt Government Region, Hesse, Germany
Mother: Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
Children: Prince Christian of Hesse-Darmstadt
Brother(s): Frederick Michael Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Christian IV Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
Father: Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
Sister(s): Christiane Henriette Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken
Spouse: Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Authority ISNI id Library of congress id Find a grave id Wikitree id Openlibrary id VIAF id
The details

Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most learned women of her time and known as The Great Landgräfin.


Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.

She married on 12 August 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, and she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler. She founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser.

Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, and he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century; after her death, he sent an urn to Darmstadt with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir ('A woman by sex, a man by spirit').


Name Portrait Birth Death Notes
Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt.jpg 2 March 1746 18 September 1821 Married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, had issue
Frederika Louisa
Queen of Prussia
Friederike Luise of Prussia 03.jpg 16 October 1751 25 February 1805 Married in 1769 Frederick William II of Prussia, had issue.
Louis I
Grand Duke of Hesse
Ludwik I, Wielki Książę Hesji-Darmstadt.JPG 14 June 1753 6 April 1830 Married in 1799 Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, had issue
Hereditary Princess of Baden
Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt.png 20 June 1754 21 June 1832 Married in 1775 Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, had issue
Wilhelmina Louisa
Grand Duchess Natalia Alexeievna of Russia
Natalia Alexeievna of Russia by A.Roslin (1776, Hermitage).jpg 25 June 1755 26 April 1776 Married in 1773 the future Emperor Paul I of Russia, no surviving issue
Louisa Augusta
Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt, grand duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.jpg 30 January 1757 14 February 1830 Married in 1775 Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, had issue
1759 1802
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
ChristianHeDa.jpg 25 November 1763 17 April 1830 Died unmarried



  • Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005
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