|A.K.A.||Henriette Karoline von Pfalz-Zweibrücken|
|Birth||March 9, 1721 (Ribeauvillé)|
|Death||March 30, 1774 (Darmstadt)|
|Authority||Find a grave id ISNI id VIAF id Openlibrary id Wikitree id Library of congress id|
Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise; 9 March 1721 – 30 March 1774) was Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt by marriage to Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. She was famed as one of the most learned women of her time and known as The Great Landgräfin.
Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.
She married on 12 August 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The marriage was arranged and unhappy: Caroline was interested in music and literature, while her consort was interested in military matters, and she lived separated from him at Buchsweiler. She founded a factory to ease the states economy. In 1772, she promoted the politician Karl Friedrich von Moser.
Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She befriended several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia. She was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected, and he famously referred to her as the Glory and Wonder of our century; after her death, he sent an urn to Darmstadt with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir ('A woman by sex, a man by spirit').
Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
|2 March 1746||18 September 1821||Married Frederick V, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, had issue|
Queen of Prussia
|16 October 1751||25 February 1805||Married in 1769 Frederick William II of Prussia, had issue.|
Grand Duke of Hesse
|14 June 1753||6 April 1830||Married in 1799 Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, had issue|
Hereditary Princess of Baden
|20 June 1754||21 June 1832||Married in 1775 Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, had issue|
Grand Duchess Natalia Alexeievna of Russia
|25 June 1755||26 April 1776||Married in 1773 the future Emperor Paul I of Russia, no surviving issue|
Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
|30 January 1757||14 February 1830||Married in 1775 Charles Augustus of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, had issue|
Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
|25 November 1763||17 April 1830||Died unmarried|
|Ancestors of Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken|
- Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005