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Antiochus IX Cyzicenus

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus

The basics
Date of birth
Date of death 95
Mother: Cleopatra Thea
Spouse: Cleopatra Selene I
Father: Antiochus VII Sidetes
Children: Antiochus X Eusebes
Brother(s): Antiochus VI Dionysus Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus
The details

Antiochus IX Eusebes ("Pious") Cyzicenus ("from Cyzicus"), ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea.


Coin of Antiochus IX's mother Cleopatra Thea and half-brother Antiochus VIII

The son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea, upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname.

After the death of his mother c. 118 BC, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus challenged his half-brother, Antiochus VIII Grypus, for power over Syria.

He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from his half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria, that same year.

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus was first married to Cleopatra IV, who was then killed in 112 BC by her sister and rival Tryphaena, wife of King Grypus. After the death of Grypus and Antiochus' capture of the capital, Antiochus married Cleopatra Selene of Syria, the sister of his former wife, Cleopatra IV.

He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes, in 96 BC.


Antiochus IX probably created the Iturean tetrarchy as an ally against Antiochus VIII. Beginning his reign in 95 BC, Antiochus X Eusebes' first achievement was to defeat his double half-cousin/second cousin Seleucus VI Epiphanes, thus avenging the recent death of his father, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. The epithets he took tell much of his story: Eusebes (being a title of his father) and also Philopator (father-loving) both honoured his father. After that, he ruled Antioch and its surroundings, fighting endlessly against the four brothers of Seleucus VI, the Nabataeans and the Parthian Empire.

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